The low efficiency of star formation process and the universal shape of initial mass functions are among the main puzzles of modern astrophysics. One of the main shortcomings of the simulations of star formation is the omission of protostellar feedback on the parental dense core. In particular, mechanical feedback originating in jets and outflows as well as radiative feedback by UV photons generated in the accreting protostar are poorly understood. The Herschel Space Observatory (2009-2013) observed nearby star forming regions with sufficient spatial and spectral resolution to quantify the effects of mechanical and radiative feedback. In this talk, I will discuss the imprints of physical processes on molecular gas analyzed using the Photodetector Array and Camera Spectrometer (PACS) instrument on Herschel. The far-infrared line emission reveals the respective roles of mechanical and radiative feedback during the 'kindergarten years' of low- and high-mass protostars, thus shedding light on how these processes may shape the final mass of protostars.
Only two Nicolaus Copernicus University PhD students received ETIUDA 2 grants in ST (science and technology), announced at the end of June 2014. Both Jan Ostrowski and Tomasz Kazimierczak of the Toruń Centre for Astronomy were awarded ETIUDA 2 grants to work on particular aspects of their doctoral projects in relativistic cosmology. The grants will help them consult with Thomas Buchert and numerical galaxy formation specialists at CRAL at the University of Lyon.